Disproportionately Black

Earl Smith, PhD – Sociology –  George Mason University


Angela J. Hattery, PhD – Women & Gender Studies – George Mason University


Black youth are currently confined in the criminal punishment system

Blacks get longer criminal sentences than whites

Blacks placed in solitary confinement more than whites

Blacks (men) exonerated, even though they are ½ of prison population

Black women sterilized

Black people in the United States have a disproportionately higher death rate from tobacco-related illnesses than other racial and ethnic groups

Black mothers’ infant mortality highest in US

Blacks stopped & frisked

Blacks held for not being able to pay bail (or fines)

Black officers disproportinately convicted for murder

Black undercover officers killed by white officers

Blacks paid less than whites for the same jobs

Blacks in Chicago (Chicago Fines, Fees & Access Collaborative), that showed how the city’s ticketing and debt collection practices disproportionately affect low-income and black neighborhoods

Disproportionately, more than any other race/ethnic group, Blacks harmed by the war on drugs 

Disproportionately, Blacks don’t have equitable access to the burgeoning cannabis industry

Disproportionately, more than any other race/ethnic group, Blacks don’t have equal access to the housing market

Blacks disproportionately experience absolute exclusion from ‘high-tech’ in Silicon Valley 

Blacks disproportionately experience ‘civil death’ after convictions & incarcerations;

(Sonia Sotomayor wrote that anyone who is arrested “will now join the 65 million Americans with an arrest record and experience the ‘civil death’ of discrimination by employers, landlords, and whoever else conducts a background check.” 136 S. Ct. 2056, 2070 (2016), Sotomayor, J., dissenting). 

Blacks disproportionately offered less pain medicine than whites by medical doctors

Blacks are disproportionately more likely than whites and other race/ethnic groups to be assigned e-carceration digital monitors like ankle and risk bracelets.   


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